- Dark-hued Krishna reveals to Arjuna His wondrous, effulgent, all expansive Universal Form, which includes everything in existence, including time.(10-50 verses)
- Earlier (1-4 verses) Arjuna eulogizes the Lord and keenly requests Him for a Viraatroop Darshan .
- Though the Lord exhibits His Viraat Roop, Arjuna fails to see the same as it cannot be perceived without divine eyes (Sanjay was also blessed with this sight in the Mahabharata war).
- Soon after attaining divine vision, Arjuna is able to behold Krishna's Cosmic Form but its dimensions are colossal and intimidating. Unlimited universes appear in one place, and all beings, as effulgent as the sun, assume their true forms. Arjuna even sees the soldiers on both sides of the battle, dying one by one, though this has not yet taken place. Krishna explains His otherworldly form as time, the destroyer of all worlds and asks Arjun to become His instrument.
- Overawed by the Universal Form, Arjuna is terrified and begs Krishna to return to the simple, familiar two-armed form for which he now has new appreciation.
- The Lord is eternally gracious to His devotees and Krishna first shows His four-armed form as Vishnu before returning to his original two-armed form. He goes on to state that His two-armed form is special and can only be seen by pure devotees.
Points to be imbibed from this chapter:
- God is multi-dimensional and can take the form desired by His devotees. Thus the followers of Lord Shiva, Vishnu, Rama or for that matter any God, should not be arrogant. On the contrary they should be thankful to the Lord for manifesting Himself in the Form they request of Him. In verse 6, Lord Krishna displays many spectacular wonders to Arjuna as part of His Cosmic Form.
- 12 types of Sun....Makar Sankranti In Various Parts Of India.
- 8 types of Vasus ...is SANATAN DHARMA only for Indians?
- 11 types of Rudras....divine lap of God Sri Hari or Lord Shiva.
- 2 types of Aswinikumars....any diseases? Bow humbly at holy feet of Doctor Dhanvantri , 18th incarnation of Lord Sri Hari.
- 49 types of wind -Gods ...independent team of Zee news also finds Ramji sites in Sri Lanka.
- Coupled with several other marvellous sights, weapons, mouths, ornaments, garlands, clothes, gods and so on. ...Krishnaay Vaasudevay Harye Parmatmane , Pranatkleshnashay Govinday namoh namah
From verse 15 onwards Arjuna, the Spectator, perceives in Lord Krishna:
- Utmost splendour with a vast spectrum of gods and living-beings of all species.
- Brahma throned on his lotus-sea.
- Lord Siva, sages and celestial serpents.
- The Supreme Power, the Indestructible, the Ultimate Refuge, protector of Sanatan Dharma, beginning, end & middle of the Universe , Self-Radiant , as Form of Kaal , Death and Destiny and what not …………. !
In verse 32, the Lord warns Arjuna :
“I am the inflamed Kala (eternal Time-spirit), destroyer of the worlds. I am out to exterminate (these Adharmi
Which means Arjuna is only a medium; He should not be faced with the dilemma or mohagrast, of killing them. His utmost duty is merely to fight against injustice. This instills Arjuna with great confidence and he is now mentally prepared for the war, knowing fully well that Lord Krishna is the actual doer of all actions.
As of now let us go through the ORIGINAL 63 verses to cherish this knowledge:
Madanugrahaaya paramam guhyamadhyaatmasamjnitam;
Yattwayoktam vachastena moho'yam vigato mama.
1. By this explanation of the highest secret concerning the Self, which Thou hast spoken out of compassion towards me my delusion is gone.
COMMENTARY: After hearing the glories of the Lord, Arjuna has an intense longing to have the wonderful Cosmic Vision.
Bhavaapyayau hi bhootaanaam shrutau vistarasho mayaa;
Twattah kamalapatraaksha maahaatmyamapi chaavyayam.
2. The origin and the destruction of beings verily have been heard by me in detail from Thee, O lotus-eyed Lord, and also Thy inexhaustible greatness!
Evametadyathaattha twamaatmaanam parameshwara;
Drashtumicchaami te roopamaishwaram purushottama.
3. (Now), O Supreme Lord, as Thou hast thus described Thyself, O Supreme Person, I wish to see Thy Divine Form!
Manyase yadi tacchakyam mayaa drashtumiti prabho;
Yogeshwara tato me twam darshayaatmaanamavyayam.
4. If Thou, O Lord, thinkest it possible for me to see it, do Thou, then, O Lord of the Yogis, show me Thy imperishable Self!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Pashya me paartha roopaani shatasho'tha sahasrashah;
Naanaavidhaani divyaani naanaavarnaakriteeni cha.
The Blessed Lord said:
5. Behold, O Arjuna, My forms by the hundreds and thousands, of different sorts, divine and of various colours and shapes!
Pashyaadityaan vasoon rudraan ashwinau marutastathaa;
Bahoonyadrishtapoorvaani pashyaashcharyaani bhaarata.
6. Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Asvins and also the Maruts; behold many wonders never seen before, O Arjuna!
Ihaikastham jagatkritsnam pashyaadya sacharaacharam;
Mama dehe gudaakesha yachchaanyad drashtumicchasi.
7. Now behold, O Arjuna, in this, My body, the whole universe centred in the one—including the moving and the unmoving—and whatever else thou desirest to see!
Na tu maam shakyase drashtum anenaiva swachakshushaa;
Divyam dadaami te chakshuh pashya me yogamaishwaram.
8. But thou art not able to behold Me with these, thine own eyes; I give thee the divine eye; behold My lordly Yoga.
COMMENTARY: No fleshy eye can behold Me in My Cosmic Form. One can see Me only through the eye of intuition or the divine eye. It should not be confused with seeing through the physical eye or through the mind. It is an inner divine experience attained through intense devotion and concentration.
Evamuktwaa tato raajan mahaayogeshwaro harih;
Darshayaamaasa paarthaaya paramam roopamaishwaram.
9. Having thus spoken, O king, the great Lord of Yoga, Hari (Krishna), showed to Arjuna His supreme form as the Lord!
Anekavaktra nayanam anekaadbhuta darshanam;
10. With numerous mouths and eyes, with numerous wonderful sights, with numerous divine ornaments, with numerous divine weapons uplifted (such a form He showed).
Sarvaashcharyamayam devam anantam vishwatomukham.
11. Wearing divine garlands and apparel, anointed with divine unguents, the all-wonderful, resplendent (Being), endless, with faces on all sides,
Divi sooryasahasrasya bhavedyugapadutthitaa;
Yadi bhaah sadrishee saa syaadbhaasastasya mahaatmanah.
12. If the splendour of a thousand suns were to blaze out at once (simultaneously) in the sky, that would be the splendour of that mighty Being (great soul).
Tatraikastham jagatkritsnam pravibhaktamanekadhaa;
Apashyaddevadevasya shareere paandavastadaa.
13. There, in the body of the God of gods, Arjuna then saw the whole universe resting in the one, with its many groups.
Tatah sa vismayaavishto hrishtaromaa dhananjayah;
Pranamya shirasaa devam kritaanjalirabhaashata.
14. Then, Arjuna, filled with wonder and with hair standing on end, bowed down his head to the Lord and spoke with joined palms.
Pashyaami devaamstava deva dehe
Mrisheemshcha sarvaanuragaamshcha divyaan.
15. I behold all the gods, O God, in Thy body, and hosts of various classes of beings; Brahma, the Lord, seated on the lotus, all the sages and the celestial serpents!
Pashyaami twaam sarvato'nantaroopam;
Naantam na madhyam na punastavaadim
Pashyaami vishweshwara vishwaroopa.
16. I see Thee of boundless form on every side, with many arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes; neither the end nor the middle nor also the beginning do I see, O Lord of the universe, O Cosmic Form!
Kireetinam gadinam chakrinam cha,
Tejoraashim sarvato deeptimantam;
Pashyaami twaam durnireekshyam samantaad
17. I see Thee with the diadem, the club and the discus, a mass of radiance shining everywhere, very hard to look at, blazing all round like burning fire and the sun, and immeasurable.
Twamaksharam paramam veditavyam
Twamasya vishwasya param nidhaanam;
Sanaatanastwam purusho mato me.
18. Thou art the Imperishable, the Supreme Being, worthy of being known; Thou art the great treasure-house of this universe; Thou art the imperishable protector of the eternal Dharma; Thou art the ancient Person, I deem.
Pashyaami twaam deeptahutaashavaktram
Swatejasaa vishwamidam tapantam.
19. I see Thee without beginning, middle or end, infinite in power, of endless arms, the sun and the moon being Thy eyes, the burning fire Thy mouth, heating the entire universe with Thy radiance.
Vyaaptam twayaikena dishashcha sarvaah;
Drishtwaa'dbhutam roopamugram tavedam
Lokatrayam pravyathitam mahaatman.
20. The space between the earth and the heaven and all the quarters are filled by Thee alone; having seen this, Thy wonderful and terrible form, the three worlds are trembling with fear, O great-souled Being!
Amee hi twaam surasanghaah vishanti
Kechid bheetaah praanjalayo grinanti;
Stuvanti twaam stutibhih pushkalaabhih.
21. Verily, into Thee enter these hosts of gods; some extol Thee in fear with joined palms: "May it be well." Saying thus, bands of great sages and perfected ones praise Thee with complete hymns.
Rudraadityaa vasavo ye cha saadhyaa
Veekshante twaam vismitaashchaiva sarve.
22. The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sadhyas, Visvedevas, the two Asvins, Maruts, the manes and hosts of celestial singers, Yakshas, demons and the perfected ones, are all looking at Thee in great astonishment.
Roopam mahat te bahuvaktranetram
Drishtwaa lokaah pravyathitaastathaa'ham.
23. Having beheld Thy immeasurable form with many mouths and eyes, O mighty-armed, with many arms, thighs and feet, with many stomachs, and fearful with many teeth, the worlds are terrified and so am I!
Drishtwaa hi twaam pravyathitaantaraatmaa
Dhritim na vindaami shamam cha vishno.
24. On seeing Thee (the Cosmic Form) touching the sky, shining in many colours, with mouths wide open, with large, fiery eyes, I am terrified at heart and find neither courage nor peace, O Vishnu!
Damshtraakaraalaani cha te mukhaani
Disho na jaane na labhe cha sharma
Praseeda devesha jagannivaasa.
25. Having seen Thy mouths, fearful with teeth, blazing like the fires of cosmic dissolution, I know not the four quarters, nor do I find peace. Have mercy, O Lord of the gods! O abode of the universe!
Amee cha twaam dhritaraashtrasya putraah
Bheeshmo dronah sootaputrastathaa'sau
26. All the sons of Dhritarashtra with the hosts of kings of the earth, Bhishma, Drona and Karna, with the chief among all our warriors,
Vaktraani te twaramaanaa vishanti
27. They hurriedly enter into Thy mouths with terrible teeth and fearful to behold. Some are found sticking in the gaps between the teeth, with their heads crushed to powder.
Yathaa nadeenaam bahavo'mbuvegaah
Tathaa tavaamee naralokaveeraah
28. Verily, just as many torrents of rivers flow towards the ocean, even so these heroes of the world of men enter Thy flaming mouths.
COMMENTARY: Arjuna sees all the warriors, whom he did not wish to kill, rushing to death. He knows now that the Lord has already destroyed them, so why should he worry about the inevitable.
Yathaa pradeeptam jwalanam patangaa
Vishanti naashaaya samriddhavegaah;
Tathaiva naashaaya vishanti lokaas
Tavaapi vaktraani samriddhavegaah.
29. As moths hurriedly rush into a blazing fire for (their own) destruction, so also these creatures hurriedly rush into Thy mouths for (their own) destruction.
Lelihyase grasamaanah samantaal
Lokaan samagraan vadanair jwaladbhih;
Bhaasastavograah pratapanti vishno.
30. Thou lickest up, devouring all the worlds on every side with Thy flaming mouths. Thy fierce rays, filling the whole world with radiance, are burning, O Vishnu!
Aakhyaahi me ko bhavaanugraroopo
Namo'stu te devavara praseeda;
Na hi prajaanaami tava pravrittim.
31. Tell me, who Thou art, so fierce in form. Salutations to Thee, O God Supreme! Have mercy; I desire to know Thee, the original Being. I know not indeed Thy doing.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Kaalo'smi lokakshayakrit pravriddho
Lokaan samaahartumiha pravrittah;
Rite'pi twaam na bhavishyanti sarve
Ye'wasthitaah pratyaneekeshu yodhaah.
The Blessed Lord said:
32. I am the mighty world-destroying Time, now engaged in destroying the worlds. Even without thee, none of the warriors arrayed in the hostile armies shall live.
Tasmaat twam uttishtha yasho labhaswa
Jitwaa shatroon bhungkshwa raajyam samriddham;
Mayaivaite nihataah poorvameva
Nimittamaatram bhava savyasaachin.
33. Therefore, stand up and obtain fame. Conquer the enemies and enjoy the unrivalled kingdom. Verily, they have already been slain by Me; be thou a mere instrument, O Arjuna!
Dronam cha bheeshmam cha jayadratham cha
Karnam tathaa'nyaanapi yodhaveeraan;
Mayaa hataamstwam jahi maa vyathishthaa
Yudhyaswa jetaasi rane sapatnaan.
34. Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna and all the other courageous warriors—these have already been slain by Me; do thou kill; be not distressed with fear; fight and thou shalt conquer thy enemies in battle.
Etacchrutwaa vachanam keshavasya
Namaskritwaa bhooya evaaha krishnam
Sagadgadam bheetabheetah pranamya.
35. Having heard that speech of Lord Krishna, the crowned one (Arjuna), with joined palms, trembling, prostrating himself, again addressed Krishna, in a choked voice, bowing down, overwhelmed with fear.
Sthaane hrisheekesha tava prakeertyaa
Jagat prahrishyatyanurajyate cha;
Rakshaamsi bheetaani disho dravanti
Sarve namasyanti cha siddhasanghaah.
36. It is meet, O Krishna, that the world delights and rejoices in Thy praise; demons fly in fear to all quarters and the hosts of the perfected ones bow to Thee!
Kasmaachcha te na nameran mahaatman
Ananta devesha jagannivaasa
Twamaksharam sadasattatparam yat.
37. And why should they not, O great soul, bow to Thee who art greater (than all else), the primal cause even of (Brahma) the creator, O Infinite Being! O Lord of the gods! O abode of the universe! Thou art the imperishable, the Being, the non-being and That which is the supreme (that which is beyond the Being and non-being).
COMMENTARY: The Lord is Mahatma. He is greater than all else. He is the imperishable, so He is the proper object of worship, love and delight.
Twamaadidevah purushah puraanas
Twamasya vishwasya param nidhaanam;
Vettaasi vedyam cha param cha dhaama
Twayaa tatam vishwamanantaroopa.
38. Thou art the primal God, the ancient Purusha, the supreme refuge of this universe, the knower, the knowable and the supreme abode. By Thee is the universe pervaded, O Being of infinite forms!
Namo namaste'stu sahasrakritwah
Punashcha bhooyo'pi namo namaste.
39. Thou art Vayu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the moon, the creator, and the great-grandfather. Salutations, salutations unto Thee, a thousand times, and again salutations, salutations unto Thee!
Namah purastaadatha prishthataste
Namo'stu te sarvata eva sarva;
Sarvam samaapnoshi tato'si sarvah.
40. Salutations to Thee from front and from behind! Salutations to Thee on every side! O All! Thou infinite in power and prowess, pervadest all; wherefore Thou art all.
Sakheti matwaa prasabham yaduktam
He krishna he yaadava he sakheti;
Ajaanataa mahimaanam tavedam
Mayaa pramaadaat pranayena vaapi.
41. Whatever I have presumptuously uttered from love or carelessness, addressing Thee as O Krishna! O Yadava! O Friend! regarding Thee merely as a friend, unknowing of this, Thy greatness,
Tatkshaamaye twaamaham aprameyam.
42. In whatever way I may have insulted Thee for the sake of fun while at play, reposing, sitting or at meals, when alone (with Thee), O Achyuta, or in company—that I implore Thee, immeasurable one, to forgive!
Pitaasi lokasya charaacharasya
Twamasya poojyashcha gururgareeyaan;
Na twatsamo'styabhyadhikah kuto'nyo
43. Thou art the Father of this world, unmoving and moving. Thou art to be adored by this world. Thou art the greatest Guru; (for) none there exists who is equal to Thee; how then can there be another superior to Thee in the three worlds, O Being of unequalled power?
Tasmaatpranamya pranidhaaya kaayam
Piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyuh
Priyah priyaayaarhasi deva sodhum.
44. Therefore, bowing down, prostrating my body, I crave Thy forgiveness, O adorable Lord! As a father forgives his son, a friend his (dear) friend, a lover his beloved, even so shouldst Thou forgive me, O God!
Adrishtapoorvam hrishito'smi drishtwaa
Bhayena cha pravyathitam mano me;
Tadeva me darshaya deva roopam
Praseeda devesha jagannivaasa.
45. I am delighted, having seen what has never been seen before; and yet my mind is distressed with fear. Show me that (previous) form only, O God! Have mercy, O God of gods! O abode of the universe!
Kireetinam gadinam chakrahastam
Icchaami twaam drashtumaham tathaiva;
Tenaiva roopena chaturbhujena
Sahasrabaaho bhava vishwamoorte.
46. I desire to see Thee as before, crowned, bearing a mace, with the discus in hand, in Thy former form only, having four arms, O thousand-armed, Cosmic Form (Being)!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Mayaa prasannena tavaarjunedam
Roopam param darshitamaatmayogaat;
Yanme twadanyena na drishtapoorvam.
The Blessed Lord said:
47. O Arjuna, this Cosmic Form has graciously been shown to thee by Me by My own Yogic power; full of splendour, primeval, and infinite, this Cosmic Form of Mine has never been seen before by anyone other than thyself.
Na vedayajnaadhyayanairna daanair
Na cha kriyaabhirna tapobhirugraih;
Evam roopah shakya aham nriloke
Drashtum twadanyena karupraveera.
48. Neither by the study of the Vedas and sacrifices, nor by gifts, nor by rituals, nor by severe austerities, can I be seen in this form in the world of men by any other than thyself, O great hero of the Kurus (Arjuna)!
Maa te vyathaa maa cha vimoodhabhaavo
Drishtwaa roopam ghorameedringmamedam;
Vyapetabheeh preetamanaah punastwam
Tadeva me roopamidam prapashya.
49. Be not afraid nor bewildered on seeing such a terrible form of Mine as this; with thy fear entirely dispelled and with a gladdened heart, now behold again this former form of Mine.
Swakam roopam darshayaamaasa bhooyah;
Aashwaasayaamaasa cha bheetamenam
Bhootwaa punah saumyavapurmahaatmaa.
50. Having thus spoken to Arjuna, Krishna again showed His own form; and the great soul (Krishna), assuming His gentle form, consoled him who was terrified (Arjuna).
Drishtwedam maanusham roopam tava saumyam janaardana;
Idaaneemasmi samvrittah sachetaah prakritim gatah.
51. Having seen this Thy gentle human form, O Krishna, now I am composed and restored to my own nature!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Sudurdarshamidam roopam drishtavaanasi yanmama;
Devaa apyasya roopasya nityam darshanakaangkshinah.
The Blessed Lord said:
52. Very hard indeed it is to see this form of Mine which thou hast seen. Even the gods are ever longing to behold it.
Naa ham vedairna tapasaa na daanena na chejyayaa;
Shakya evamvidho drashtum drishtavaanasi maam yathaa.
53. Neither by the Vedas, nor by austerity, nor by gift, nor by sacrifice, can I be seen in this form as thou hast seen Me (so easily).
Bhaktyaa twananyayaa shakyam aham evamvidho'rjuna;
Jnaatum drashtum cha tattwena praveshtum cha parantapa.
54. But by single-minded devotion can I, of this form, be known and seen in reality and also entered into, O Arjuna!
Matkarmakrinmatparamo madbhaktah sangavarjitah;
Nirvairah sarvabhooteshu yah sa maameti paandava.
55. He who does all actions for Me, who looks upon Me as the Supreme, who is devoted to Me, who is free from attachment, who bears enmity towards no creature, he comes to Me, O Arjuna!
COMMENTARY: This is the essence of the whole teaching of the Gita. He who practises this teaching attains supreme bliss and immortality. Such a one realises Him and enters into His Being, becoming completely one with Him. This verse contains the summary of the entire Gita philosophy.
Hari Om Tat Sat
Iti Srimad Bhagavadgeetaasoopanishatsu Brahmavidyaayaam
Yogashaastre Sri Krishnaarjunasamvaade
Vishwaroopa Darshanayogo Naama Ekaadasho'dhyaayah
Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita, the science of the Eternal, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the eleventh discourse entitled:
"The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form"
COMMENTARY ON CHAPTER 11:
While Chapter XI of GITAJI has 63 verses and mentions original verses from Srimad Bhagwad Gita, many sublime commentaries can be read on this narrative:
i) From the stable of Gita-press in Gorakhpur we have Gita-tika by Seth Jaidayal Goenkaji;Saint Hanuman Prasad Poddarji alias Bhaiji ;Swami Ramsukhdasji and other saints .
Those believing in Gyan-yog, repeatedly read the one by Sethji and those who have faith in Bhakti-yog read more of Bhaiji. Swami Ramsukhdasji has tried to balance the two and His Gita-Darpan commentary is simply marvellous.
ii) We have annotations by ancient Acharyas, namely Gita-tika by Ramanujacharya , Vallabhachrya, Gyaneshwarji, Shankarcharyaji and so on.
iii) 20th century Saints like Swami Shivanandaji, Chidanandaji of Divine Life Society, Rishikesh , and ISCKON's Prabhupadji have documented their observations.
iv) Modern day thinkers like Lokmanya Tilak and Dr Radhakrishnan have their own interprations.
v) A rather simplistic summary in the 17th the 18th chapter sums up the ‘Gita’. .This is after a time span of 30 years satsang with Saint Ushaji, Susheelaji and Manoharji of 18th Feb, 2008 is jayanti of Swami Ramkrishan Paramhansa fame.
To exemplify, Swami Shivanandaji gives a summary of the eleventh discourse as under:
Arjuna's doubts having been removed through a clear description of the nature of the Atman and the origin and destruction of all created things, he is now ready to behold the Cosmic Vision.
Krishna grants him the divine sight by means of which Arjuna beholds the Lord as the vast Cosmic Manifestation. The vision is at once all-comprehensive and simultaneous. In every direction Arjuna sees the Lord as the entire universe. All the created worlds, gods, beings, creatures and things stand revealed as the one gigantic body of the Lord.
Arjuna further sees that the great cosmic drama is set in motion and controlled by the all-mighty power of the Lord. His Will alone prevails in all things and actions, both good and bad. The Lord exhorts him to fight, he being only an apparent cause of the destruction of his enemies.
Arjuna is unable to bear the pressure of the sudden expansion of consciousness and is filled with fear. He begs the Lord to assume once more His usual form.
Krishna reiterates that this vision cannot be had through any amount of austerities, study, sacrifices or philanthrophic acts. Supreme devotion is the only means by which one can have access to His grand vision.
In fact, on this chapter many inspiring commentaries are available:--
- From the stable of Gita-press in Gorakhpur we have ‘Gita-tika’by Seth Jaidayal Goenkaji; bySaint Hanuman Prasad Poddarji alias Bhaiji; Swami Ramsukhdasji and other saints. Those believing in Gyan-yog, repeatedly read the one by Sethji and those who have faith in Bhakti-yog read more of Bhaiji. Swami Ramsukhdasji has tried to balance the two and His Gita-Darpan analysis is simply marvellous.
- We have annotations by ancient Acharyas namely ‘Gita-tika’ by Ramanujacharya, Vallabhachrya, Gyaneshwarji, and Shankarcharyaji and so on.
- 20th century Saints like Swami Shivanandaji, Chidanandaji of Divine Life Society, Rishikesh, and ISCKON's Prabhupadji have documented their observations on the text.
- Modernday day thinkers, Lokmanya Tilak and Dr Radhakrishnan have given their interprations on the Holy Book.
- A rather simplistic summary in the 17 to 18th chapters sums up the 'Gita’ .This is after a time span of 30 years satsang with Saint Ushaji, Susheelaji and Manoharji of Swami Ramkrishan Paramhansa fame.